Laboratorium: Russian Review of Social Research 2018-12-28T20:05:32+00:00 Oksana Parfenova Open Journal Systems <p><em>Laboratorium: Russian Review of Social Research </em>is an open-access, peer-reviewed journal produced by an international group of scholars. The journal comes out three times a year and publishes materials based on empirical qualitative social research in Russian and English. </p> Territorial Identities in Industrial Neighborhoods: Cultural Practices of Factory Workers and Contemporary Art Communities 2018-12-28T20:05:32+00:00 Alexandrina Vanke Elizaveta Polukhina <p>The article considers territorial identities formed around two Soviet-era enterprises, the Likhachev Automotive Plant (ZIL) in Moscow and the Ural Heavy Machine Building Plant (Uralmash) in Yekaterinburg. Using the example of these two cases we answer the question of how the territorial identity of industrial neighborhoods is created in post-Soviet Russia. We analyze cultural practices in both industrial neighborhoods and show how cultural actors contribute to the transformation of their territorial identities.<br>The study reveals an increase in social inequality among residents of the neighborhoods, specifically between workers and representatives of other social groups. Against the background of neoliberal policy, new social actors come to the industrial neighborhoods and change the their social composition. Both cases of ZIL and Uralmash demonstrate the stratification of working- and middle-class identities and cultures. Thus, in the case of industrial neighborhoods we can speak of multiple territorial identities that are represented in the exercise of class-differentiated Soviet and post-Soviet cultural practices and the reproduction of old and new lifestyles.<br>The role of cultural actors in the formation of multiple territorial identities of industrial neighborhoods is ambivalent. On the one hand, they contribute to the creation of a new cultural environment and try to transform the marginal image of industrial territories to make them more attractive to wider urban publics. On the other hand, due to this cultural expansion residents of industrial neighborhoods are becoming an invisible social group with no chance to speak publicly. Working-class culture, represented for instance in crafts, is devalued and not perceived as worthy. Therefore, cultural actors’ activity corresponds to general trends of gentrification and the displacement of workers from industrial territories and public spaces. The abovementioned processes indicate the reproduction of cultural, class, and territorial inequalities inside industrial neighborhoods.</p> <p><em>Article in Russian</em></p> <p>DOI: 10.25285/2078-1938-2018-10-3-4-34</p> 2018-12-27T10:29:59+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Technological Style and Ecology in the USSR in the 1940s and 1950s: The Case of the Karelian Isthmus 2018-12-28T19:44:27+00:00 Elena Kochetkova Pavel Pokidko <p>This article examines the technological style and interplay between technological development and ecology in the USSR in the first post–World War II decade. The study covers practices of work at the enterprises that produced significant industrial pollution in the Soviet Union. In so doing, the article is focused on the history of several pulp- and paper-making enterprises on the Karelian Isthmus, a territory that was annexed by the Soviet Union from Finland as a result of two Finnish-Soviet wars in 1944. The article argues that, while postwar conditions were defined by shortages of goods and finances, a lack of workers and specialists, and low motivation, the main task, as seen by the state, ministry, and enterprise, was to launch production processes and the manufacturing of paper and pulp as required by the plan. In general, the technological style of Soviet production after the war echoed the style of Joseph Stalin’s forced industrialization of the 1930s. It implied the dominance of the Five- Year Plan and mandated using all available resources to fulfil it in the shortest period of time. In the process it led to the overexploitation of equipment and substantial ecological risks.</p> <p><em>Article in Russian</em></p> <p>DOI: 10.25285/2078-1938-2018-10-3-35-56</p> 2018-12-27T10:46:12+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## “Sorry, I Cannot Understand”: Ways of Dealing with Non-Understanding in Human-Robot Interaction 2018-12-28T19:46:23+00:00 Andrei Korbut <p>The article discusses how the non-understanding that arises during human-robot interaction is managed. The focus is on the ways humans respond to the open expression of non-understanding by robots, as well as of non-understanding that the robot itself does not “realize.” The methodological framework of the research is an ethnomethodological conversation analysis that presupposes the identification of the ways of producing local social order in the sequences of actions. By analyzing the conversations between callers and robot (it is actually a chatbot, but official term for it is “robot”) in a Russian telephone information service, I show that, instead of non-understanding being a negative phenomenon consisting in lack of understanding, non-understanding is a situational and coordinated achievement of the participants in the interaction. The article identifies two types of conditions of non-understanding between human and robot: institutional (related to the specific organizational context in which the interaction takes place and which is produced in it) and interactional (related to the organization of interaction).<br>Based on a detailed analysis of transcripts of human-robot telephone conversations, five ways of responding to non-understandings are distinguished: changes in the acoustic characteristics of utterances (raising the voice level, slowing down, expanding pauses, etc.); expanding the initial statement (for example, by introducing explanatory words); reducing utterances to “key” words; ignoring non-understanding; and adding explanations. At the same time, people not only react to the non-understanding by the robot after its occurrence but also actively anticipate it, building their turns in a way understandable to the robot. The identified features of human-robot interaction provide a more accurate description of human interaction with technical interactional agents, which are becoming increasingly common in everyday life, and also show that non-understanding is not a failure in understanding but a social achievement of the participants in interaction, whether humans or robots. Because non-understanding should be demonstrated and recognized in details and sequences of actions, it is necessary to consider it as an independent interactive phenomenon.</p> <p><em>Article in Russian</em>&nbsp;</p> <p>DOI: 10.25285/2078-1938-2018-10-3-57-78</p> 2018-12-27T11:33:11+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## From Socialist Realism to Orthodox Christianity: “Blockade Temples” in Saint Petersburg 2018-12-28T19:48:25+00:00 Tatiana Voronina <p>&nbsp;The article, based on the analysis of architectural and memorial complexes dedicated to the Siege of Leningrad in Saint Petersburg, investigates the processes of formation and transformation of historical memory of this event in the urban space. The secular language of the artistic representation of the blockade created during the years of the USSR was instrumentalized by agents of the politics of history on the eve of perestroika and reinterpreted through the categories of Orthodox Christianity in contemporary Russia. Following the cultural transformations that took place during perestroika, I identify new actors of the politics of history: organizations of blockade survivors, Russian nationalists, and the Russian Orthodox Church. They were the driving force behind many memorials and commemorative signs dedicated to the Blockade of Leningrad in and around Saint Petersburg in the 1990s and early 2000s. The construction of Russian Orthodox churches dedicated to the memory of the blockade, like the Church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary on Malaia Okhta and the Church of All Saints Resplendent in the Russian Land in Victory Park, testify to the emergence of a new language of historical commemoration in the post-Soviet Saint Petersburg. It also indicates the inclusion of the blockade in the category of events significant to the historical narrative of the Russian Orthodox Church. Using the example of the Russian Orthodox Church’s policy regarding commemoration of the blockade in the 1990s, I outline the reasons why a formerly marginal agent of the politics of history not only was able to mark its presence in the city’s cultural space, but also began to claim the place of the most influential interpreter of the past in contemporary Russia. The study is based on visual analyses of several memorials dedicated to the Blockade of Leningrad, the circumstances of the creation of monuments and other commemorative markers, their location in the city, and the discursive significance attached to memorials by the city’s community. The article is written at the intersection of research in history of memory and cultural studies.</p> <p><em>Article in English</em></p> <p>DOI: 10.25285/2078-1938-2018-10-3-79-105</p> 2018-12-27T11:54:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Karin Hyldal Christensen. The Making of the New Martyrs of Russia: Soviet Repression in Orthodox Memory. London: Routledge, 2017 2018-12-28T19:50:06+00:00 Zuzanna Bogumił <p>Since the beginning of the 1990s the Russian Orthodox Church (ROC) has canonized nearly 2,000 new martyrs and confessors, Orthodox believers who were killed during the Soviet repressions (mostly between 1917 and 1941). Just during the Great Jubilee of 2000, which commemorated the birth of Christianity, the Russian Orthodox Church canonized more than 1,000 martyrs. This was the biggest canonization process in the history of the ROC. As a consequence, the profile of Russian saints has radically changed. During the first millennium of Russian Christianity (988–1988) the ROC had only 300 national saints, most of whom were primarily monastics, ascetics, or holy prelates. There were almost no martyrs during that time. Mass canonization has changed these numbers radically. At the moment, the majority of Russian saints are the new martyrs of the twentieth century. Karin Hyldal Christensen’s book is the first comprehensive attempt to explain this new phenomenon within the ROC. The Danish researcher has written more than two hundred pages in an attempt to explain: Who are the new martyrs? Why did the ROC canonize them, and what did that process look like? She focuses on explaining how the new martyrs relate to the Orthodox tradition; however, she also tries to describe the contemporary social meaning of new martyrdom.</p> <p><em>Text in English</em>&nbsp;</p> <p>DOI: 10.25285/2078-1938-2018-10-3-145-149</p> 2018-12-27T10:25:52+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## James M. Jasper and Jan Willem Duyvendak, eds. Players and Arenas: The Interactive Dynamics of Protest. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2015 2018-12-28T19:53:51+00:00 Anna Zhelnina <p>Players and Arenas aims at promoting the strategic interaction perspective (SIP)—a theoretical effort to bridge the gap between the structural paradigm and cultural theories in political sociology and social movements studies. Structural approaches seek to establish causal links between relatively stable factors (features of the political and economic environment) and a movement’s emergence and success. The most influential of the structural approaches is political process theory, with its core concept of political opportunity (McAdam, McCarthy, and Zald 1996). Cultural theories call for more attention to emotions, morality, and choices made by protestors, claiming that these can help protesters recognize and create political opportunities for their movement’s development, thus allowing for more agency of movement actors.</p> <p><em>Text in English</em>&nbsp;</p> <p>DOI: 10.25285/2078-1938-2018-10-3-106-109</p> 2018-12-27T12:03:16+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mathijs Pelkmans. Fragile Conviction: Changing Ideological Landscapes in Urban Kyrgyzstan. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2017 2018-12-28T19:55:49+00:00 Benjamin Martin Kaelin <p>With his monograph Fragile Conviction: Changing Ideological Landscapes in Urban Kyrgyzstan, Mathijs Pelkmans offers an ethnographic approach to the issues of ideology and conviction under the conditions of globalization. His goal is to shed light on the “mechanisms, by which individuals become committed to a cause and gain certainty about the meaning and value of the ideas involved” (p. 2). Based on the author’s extensive field research in Kyrgyzstan, the book grants insight into the everchanging political, economic, and social landscape in the post-Soviet world by focusing on abruptly emerging systems of ideas, which often vanish as quickly as they emerged. He also pays close attention to the often-changing meanings of certain ideological signifiers and thus their temporary character. The main question addressed is how such systems of ideas go viral, “how they come to matter in people’s lives” (p. 5). Therefore, the book is situated within debates about the so-called end of history and ideology, as well as the proposed ideological, spiritual, and moral vacuum in the post-Soviet era—which some others have described, on the contrary, as a time of ideological excess. Key to his analysis is a conceptual focus on “conviction,” which Pelkmans differentiates from ideology: while he sees ideology closely associated with dominant power, his concept of conviction aims to capture an “emotive energy that is produced in the connections between individuals” (p. 10). Conviction is, therefore, better suited to include political and religious belief systems and also emphasizes the relationship between subject and ideas.</p> <p><em>Text in English</em>&nbsp;</p> <p>DOI: 10.25285/2078-1938-2018-10-3-110-113</p> 2018-12-27T12:14:59+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Charlie Walker and Steven Roberts, eds. Masculinity, Labour, and Neoliberalism: Working-Class Men in International Perspective. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018 2018-12-28T19:58:18+00:00 Larisa Shpakovskaya <p class="western" align="justify">Современные работы, анализирующие гендерные отношения, сходятся на том, что «традиционная» мужественность претерпевает существенные изменения. Исследователи обращают внимание на ситуацию «заблокированной гендерной революции» (Hochschild 1989), когда кардинальное изменение ролей женщин не сопровождается соответствующими изменениями гендерных ролей мужчин, идентичность которых по-прежнему выстраивается вокруг профессиональных ролей в публичной сфере, а также роли добытчика в семье. «Разгневанные белые мужчины» испытывают чувство фрустрации, поскольку все так же выполняют свою традиционную гендерную роль, но при этом больше не получают привилегий, которые она дает (Темкина 2018). Они становятся заметными акторами современности. «Злые мужчины» в бедных штатaх США голосуют против социально ориентированных политиков (Hochschild 2016). Они выступают против тех, кто, как им кажется, отнимает их привилегии: женщин, гомосексуалистов, мигрантов. Фрустрация оборачивается насилием как в приватной, так и публичной сферах (Kimmel 2013). Всем, кто хочет разобраться в том, что происходит с «традиционной» мужественностью в современном мире, можно порекомендовать книгу «Masculinity, Labour, and Neoliberalism: Working-Class Men in International perspective», выпущенную под редакцией известных исследователей маскулинности Чарли Уолкера (Charlie Walker) (Университет Саусхемпшира, Великобритания) и Стивена Робертса (Steven Roberts) (Университет Монаша, Австралия), в которой процессы трансформации гегемонной маскулинности рассматриваются в глобальной перспективе сквозь призму класса, расы, этничности и возраста.</p> <p class="western" align="justify"><em>Text in Russian</em>&nbsp;</p> <p class="western" align="justify">DOI: 10.25285/2078-1938-2018-10-3-114-118</p> 2018-12-27T18:20:17+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Michèle Lamont et al. Getting Respect: Responding to Stigma and Discrimination in the United States, Brazil, and Israel. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2016 2018-12-28T19:59:53+00:00 Elena Bogdanova <p>Книга Мишель Ламонт и соавторов вписывается в ряд работ, проблематизирующих сосуществование социальных групп в условиях нарастающего культурного разнообразия современного общества. В работе предлагается нетривиальный подход к исследованию социального неравенства и социального исключения темнокожих в трех странах: США, Бразилии и Израиле. Авторы выбирают для исследования страны, в которых расовые проблемы стоят наиболее остро, и фокусируют внимание на наиболее социально исключенных группах: афроамериканцы в США, темнокожие бразильцы в Бразилии, палестинские арабы, эфиопские евреи, евреи североафриканского и средневосточного происхождения (мизрахим) в Израиле.</p> <p><em>Text in Russian</em>&nbsp;</p> <p>DOI: 10.25285/2078-1938-2018-10-3-119-121</p> 2018-12-28T06:24:19+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Anna Klepikova. Naverno ia durak: Antropologicheskii roman. SPb.: Izdatel'stvo Evropeiskogo universiteta v Sankt-Peterburge, 2018 2018-12-28T20:01:13+00:00 Aliya Nizamova <p>Опубликованная в 2018 году книга «Наверно я дурак» охарактеризована ее автором Анной Клепиковой как «антропологический роман». Послесловие к книге, написанное научным редактором издания Ильей Утехиным, проясняет выбор жанра. Автобиографичное повествование романа и его переплетение с антропологической методологией погружает читателя в мир, исследуемый автором, и фокусирует внимание на личностях персонажей (с. 391). В то же время антропологические и социальные исследования инвалидности и специализированных социальных учреждений становятся основой для построения текста и сосредоточения его на таких аспектах, как нормализация, специальное образование, альтернативная и расширенная коммуникация, работа «тотальных институтов», телесность и сексуальность (с. 390).</p> <p><em>Text in Russian</em>&nbsp;</p> <p>DOI: 10.25285/2078-1938-2018-10-3-122-126</p> 2018-12-28T06:29:30+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Eugene Raikhel. Governing Habits: Treating Alcoholism in the Post-Soviet Clinic. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2016 2018-12-28T19:57:02+00:00 Benjamin Goldschmidt <p>Patterns of alcohol consumption and alcoholism treatment in post-Soviet countries in the critical years after the collapse of the Soviet Union have generated heightened interest in Western medical literature. During the 1990s a team of British and Russian addiction researchers conducted studies on the topic (Fleming, Meyroyan, and Klimova 1994; Fleming 1996; Fleming, Bradbeer, and Green 2001), reflected also in the present study, and the issue continues to be discussed both within and outside Russia (Zaridze et al. 2014; Penina 2018; Tuchina et al. 2018). Whereas these studies treat alcoholism mostly under the auspices of epidemiology or public health, Eugene Raikhel’s interest and research design are clearly anthropological. In this regard, his study is more in the vein of Michele Rivkin-Fish (2003, 2005, 2017), Tomas Matza (2012, 2018), or Michelle Parsons (2014).</p> <p><em>Text in English</em>&nbsp;</p> <p>DOI: 10.25285/2078-1938-2018-10-3-127-131</p> 2018-12-28T06:39:34+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Gleb Tsipursky. Socialist Fun: Youth, Consumption, and State-Sponsored Popular Culture in the Soviet Union, 1945–1970. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2016 2018-12-28T20:02:30+00:00 Nikolai Mitrokhin <p>В последние два десятилетия среди отечественных и зарубежных историков устойчиво высок интерес к изучению советской молодежи в 1945–1970-е годы. Это обусловлено доступностью первичных (документы в бывших «комсомольских» архивах) и вторичных (художественные произведения, мемуары, опубликованные дневники) источников и сравнительной простотой интервьюирования пожилых людей, основная тема которого касается, вероятно, самого прекрасного периода их жизни. Книги о советской молодежи тех лет, студенчестве и вузах, оппозиционной активности молодых людей публикуются практически каждый год на русском и английском языках (Волчкевич 2009; Герасимова 2015; Димке 2018; Каримов 2004; Козлов и Мироненко 2005; Костырченко 2012; Мазус 2014; Митрохин 2003; Силина 2004; Fürst 2010; Hornsby 2013; Jones 2013; Roth-Ey 2011; Tromly 2014; Zubok 2009).</p> <p><em>Text in Russian</em>&nbsp;</p> <p>DOI: 10.25285/2078-1938-2018-10-3-132-139</p> 2018-12-28T07:01:57+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Andrey Makarychev and Alexandra Yatsyk. Lotman’s Cultural Semiotics and the Political. London: Rowman & Littlefield International, 2017 2018-12-28T20:03:59+00:00 Natalia Movnina <p>Вышедшая в 2017 году книга Андрея Макарычева и Александры Яцык «Lotman’s Cultural Semiotics and the Political» заявлена авторами как попытка предложить новый теоретический инструментарий для политического анализа постсоветского мира. Потребность в нем мотивирована неспособностью дискурсов, выдвигающих на первый план институциональные или экономические аспекты, уловить и адекватно интерпретировать те элементы политического процесса, которые находятся за пределами видимой сферы политики. Но именно такие подспудные «течения» могут оказаться ключевыми для понимания трансформаций политической реальности, в которой прежние установки на глобализацию и интеграцию сменяются тенденциями к изоляционизму и возобновлению «холодной войны» и где происходят трудно представимые в недавнем прошлом события, подобные войне в Украине. В книге анализируются нарративы и практики, которые, по мнению авторов, являются в определенном смысле не менее политическими, чем политика, понимаемая как сфера управления или принятия решений: в них проявляется и символически оформляется самопредставление наций, сообществ и групп в их взаимоотношениях с разнообразными «другими» – внешними и внутренними. В качестве средства, помогающего разобраться в сплетениях элементов, образующих коллективные идентичности, и в их политических импликациях, в книге представлена семиотика культуры, разработанная главой тартуско-московской школы Юрием Лотманом.</p> <p><em>Text in Russian</em>&nbsp;</p> <p>DOI: 10.25285/2078-1938-2018-10-3-140-144</p> 2018-12-28T07:07:12+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Authors 2018-12-28T08:21:03+00:00 Laboratorium Russian Review of Social Research <p>This issue's authors.</p> 2018-12-28T08:15:16+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## List of Article Manuscript Reviewers, 2018 2018-12-28T19:51:50+00:00 Laboratorium Russian Review of Social Research <p>List of Article Manuscript Reviewers, 2018</p> 2018-12-28T08:13:40+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##